The global pipeline of new GM crops
This study extends upon the findings of an expert workshop organised by the IPTS, compiling an overview of the current global pipeline of new GM crops and discussing the potential economic and trade impact of the emergence of new GM crops that are not approved in the EU. The pipeline of new GM crops is also intended to serve as basis for further analyses in the field.
New GM crops are being developed in more and more countries worldwide by more and more actors, i.e. by both private and public technology providers. Yet, before a GMO can be marketed, it has to pass an approval process. The duration of the approval process of new GMOs – and the regulation of how to deal with traces (low-level presence, LLP) of unapproved GM material – differs between the EU and other countries worldwide. Also, some GM developers may release products for local markets and not seek actively authorisation for release in EU. It is from this heterogeneity that problems for international trade can arise for crops that may contain traces of GM material that are non-approved in the EU. The consequences for essential EU trade activities in agricultural commodities (for example rejection of shipments and closure of certain markets) are potentially far-reaching, not only affecting the producers of the crop, but also commodity traders and importers, as well as the EU feed and livestock producers.
Stein, A.J. and E. Rodríguez-Cerezo (2009). The global pipeline of new GM crops: implications of asynchronous approval for international trade. JRC Technical Report EUR 23486 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id=2420
– Related JRC News Release 03/09/09:
Growing number of genetically modified crops worldwide could disrupt international trade
Stein, A.J. and E. Rodríguez-Cerezo (2009). A review of the world's commercial pipeline of GM crops and implications for asynchronous approval and trade. Conference Paper, XIII. ICABR Conference, 18-20 June 2009, Ravello, Italy.
(paper, after registration)
Stein, A.J. and E. Rodríguez-Cerezo (2009). The global pipeline of new GM crops: introduction to the database. JRC Technical Note EUR 23810 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id=2199
Stein, A.J. and E. Rodríguez-Cerezo (2009). What can data on GMO field release applications in the USA tell us about the commercialisation of new GM crops? JRC Technical Note JRC 52545. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id=2419
Economic impact of unapproved GMOs on EU feed imports and livestock production, 2007, Report by DG AGRI
Implications of asynchronous GMO approvals for EU imports of animal feed products, 2009, Tender Specification by DG AGRI
Food and feed safety – biotechnology, online, Introduction by DG SANCO
Emilio Rodriguez-Cerezo, Alexander J. Stein